Camelina (Camelina sativa) is a species of annual plants with yellow petals; of the cruciferous family, the stem is 30-100 cm tall. The seed of camelina contains 40-46% oil which is used in engineering (for lubrications the various parts), as well as in the production of varnish, lacquer, soap and food. The cake, after special treatment, is fed to cattle in small quantities. A 100 kg of cake contains 115 k.o. In Ukraine, camelina is planted 5-6 thousand hectares (3% of all oil-bearing plants) and mostly in the northern part of the left-bank Lisostep and Polissya. The average seed yield is 10-15 centner/he.
Camelina is an early self-pollinated annual plant with thin ramifications and slightly pubescent stems. Camelina is often used for re-sowing and adding to dead or scanty winter crops; also it is used as an intermediate or stubby culture. The plants can withstand spring frost, during the vegetation period insensitive to drought. It has a short growing season, which allows it to effectively use the reserves of moisture and to form yield due to rain that falls during the growing period. Other cultures can be grown after harvesting of camelina. It grows well on all soil types, except for heavy clay soils. Unlike other cabbage crops, there are almost no pests and diseases in camelina crops. The best precursors for camelina are winter and early spring cereals and cultivated cultures, especially potatoes, flax, maize, sugar beets, vegetables and melons.
The optimal seed rate is 2-4 kg/he, in the case of dense sowing – 10-12 kg/he. Camelina is sown, along with early spring cultures, with a dense sowing method as well as with a wide-row method. The seed material from the areas can be contaminated with ascochyta blight, root rot and powdery mildew. Camelina is collected by separate or direct harvesting; mowed rolls are thrashed after drying. Modern species are equal in terms of maturation. In heavily weeded areas, desiccation is implemented. After harvesting, it is immediately cleaned from the rejects of green parts and straw and dried.