ABOUT THE PLANT: White mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is a valuable oil crop. Its seeds contain 30-40% of oil, which by its quality is comparable to sunflower oil. It is used for food purposes, in canning, baking, confectionary industry and for technical purposes also.
Yield of the seed is 12-15 centner/he. Used as a forage culture. In the cake (60-70% seed mass) contains 25-32% of protein, 12% fat, 8% cellulose. White mustard is characterized by rapid growth of vegetative mass. Harvest ripeness comes in 30-38 days. Yield of the green mass reaches up to 200-300 centner/he. It can be used before the formation of fruits phase. White mustard can be sown in mixtures and as an intermediate crop.
White mustard isn’t demanding to environmental conditions, grows almost in all types of soils, except for light sandy soils. The root system has the ability to absorb nutrients from sparingly soluble forms of potassium and phosphorus, so it can grow on scanty soils with poor acidic reaction. The culture is frost resistant, the seed germinates at 1…3 ? C temperature, the shoots in the rosette phase can withstand intermittent spring frosts to -7…9 ? C. Optimal moisture supply – 350-450 mm during the vegetative period. Thanks to the early period of sowing, it uses the autumn-winter water reserves most effectively. The best predecessors for white mustard are cereals, legumes and cultivated crops, clean and engaged fallow. It is not recommended to sow white mustard after sunflower, millet and cabbage family crops (rape, wild turnip, mustard, etc.)
White mustard requires early term of sowing. The best conditions for getting unanimous shoots – warming the soil up to 8…10 C. This period usually coincides with the sowing of early cereals and grain legumes. The best method of sowing white mustard is ordinary row with 15 cm of intercropping width. Enfolding depth of the seed depends on the mechanical condition of the soil, moisture and on average is 2-4 cm. Seeding rate is 1,5-2 million of similar seeds per hectare. C3T-3,6 grain seed drills are used for sowing.
IMPLEMENTATION: Our company offers the best prices for the purchase of white mustard seeds of the following sorts: Carolina, Etalon, Talisman.
Originator is Institute of feed and agriculture of Podillya NAAS. It is added to the Register of plants in 1994 for Woodlands, forest-steppe and steppe. Recommended for use as fodder, technical and green manure plant. It is a medium-late-ripe plant with Increased forage and seed production, quality of green mass. It is characterized by extended period of feed use and high drought resistance. It takes 40-45 days from the vegetative (grooving) season till the cutting ripeness and 85-95 days to the seeds harvesting. Harvest of the dry substance is 5,5 – 6,5 t / ha, harvest of seeds is 1.5-2.0 t / ha. The content of protein in the dry matter mass is 17-19%, fiber – 21.5%.
It is a new sort of white mustard created in a breeding and seed rape laboratory NSC “Institute of Agriculture UAAS” followed by hybridization and further individual family selection. Function of the sort: obtaining of food oil and getting the meal for production of mustard powder. The sort is added in the Register of plant varieties of Ukraine in 2003 for cultivation in forest-steppe and woodlands of Ukraine.
Sort Etalon is a plant of spring white mustard with the height of 132 cm. Stem is round, 7-9 mm thick, which contains 6-7 branches of the first order. The growing season lasts 102 days. Inflorescence is panicle with length 24-25 cm. Fruit is pod length of 9-11 cm, which contains 24-34 seeds of round shape of light yellow color. Weight of 1000 seeds is 3.5 g. Seeds are resistant to lodging and shattering. It is middle-resistant sort to pests and diseases.
According to the Institute of Agriculture, for the years of tests in terms of testing experimental farm “Chabany” of the Kiev Sviatoshynsky district (Kyiv region) Yield of the seed is 21.1 centners / ha. Oil content in the seeds – 15.6 mmol / g. Spatial isolation of crops of other varieties of mustard is not less than 500 m.
It is recommended for cultivation in the steppe, forest-steppe and woodlands areas. Sort Talisman is listed in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine in 2000.
The vegetative (growing) season is 80-85 days. Plant height is from 80 to 120 cm (depending on growing conditions). Stem is branched, covered with stiff hairs (like fruit and leaves). The color of the stem varies from light green to anthocyanin. The inflorescence is apical, multiflorous. The flowers are lemon-yellow. The stamens hardly protrude from the corolla. Fruit is a follicle (husk) of 2-4 cm long, ending with sword alike wide nose, covered with hairs. Seeds are globular (4-10 pcs.) In diameter 1.5-2.0 mm, creamy-white. Weight of 1000 seeds is 4-6 m. Oil content is 28.4%. The yield of seeds – 1,8-2,0 t / ha.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT MUSTARD:
1. Mustard is one of the oldest spices that is familiar to mankind. Yes, mustard seeds were used in Indian cuisine in 3000 BC, and the very first known recipe for mustard dates from the year 42 AD
2. Mustard is a good honey plant and it is often put on bee apiaries. Its pollen is very useful for bees and for people living next to the mustard fields.
3. Fans of mustard live in Mount Horeb (Wisconsin). They held Mustard Festivals there, there is situated the only in the world museum of mustard, which has 5,000 exhibits from 60 countries. Also there is the American College of mustard.
4. Mustard even once participated in the negotiations. Persian King Darius sent Alexander Macedonian a sack of sesame seeds. It was some kind of a hint that his army has lot of soldiers. In response, Alexander sent a little bag of mustard seeds, saying that although his army is smaller, but in battle they are much hotter.
5. Mustard powder can be used as a detergent for washing dishes. Exactly mustard powder was used for washing dishes in the eating places in Soviet times.
6. In Denmark they disperse mustard seeds in a house for happiness and to confront the forces of evil.
7. The Germans were adopted to sew a mustard seed in the bridal veil, which was a symbol of lasting marriage and the primacy of women in the family.